Roses are perhaps the most frequently cultivated landscape plant across America. Rose gardens are common to parks, landscapes, botanical gardens and for homeowners. Everyone seems to have an opinion about rose culture and there are numerous clubs and societies to support the hobby of rose growing. This week I am in the midst of pruning my rose fertilizer study here in Santa Paula California. I have 240 roses of eight varieties and my thoughts are on roses now, so I offer this blog to dispel some of the myths about rose horticulture.
Myth I–Roses are difficult and require a lot of pesticides
Most roses grow easily in most soils in most places. Roses tolerate environmental extremes very well. They grow in many climates and tolerate below freezing temperatures during winter dormancy and high temperatures during summer. Current rose varieties have been developed through breeding of wild rose types. Floribundas, hybrid T roses, grandifloras, shrub or landscape roses, climbing roses and dwarf roses offer the enthusiast a variety of forms and functions in the Rosa genus. In the early 19th century Empress Josephine of France gave rose development a great boost in her own garden at Malmaison. Her patronage of rose research led to the development of thousands of varieties in Europe and later in the United States. The genetics of garden roses is now quite diverse. Because of the diversity of roses some grow better than others, some are highly disease resistant some are very susceptible. Like all plants, roses develop various kinds of diseases and attract pests. Because they are grown commonly in gardens there are many rose pesticides available for use. In my decade of rose research growing hundreds of roses, I have never used pesticides to maintain them. Susceptible varieties could be treated with pesticides or gardeners can chose to avoid varieties that host pests and focus on ones that are not so afflicted. With so many varieties available to gardeners there will be strong varieties and weak ones, pest prone and healthy. The variety you select will determine the necessity for pest control. Many many roses are relatively pest free and grow well without any treatments.
Myth II Roses Require lots of irrigation
The idea that roses need more water than other landscape plants is a horticultural misnomer. In the Central Valley of California roses are grown for production to consumer markets and they typically are furrow irrigated once every eight days in the growing season. Even during triple digit weather, they are held to this schedule without damage.
Myth III Roses require rose specific fertilizers
Roses need the same mineral element as other plants. There is no evidence that increased magnesium (Epsom Salts) benefits roses in any way. Prescriptive fertilization is not appropriate for rose culture or any landscape setting. Fertilizers should be applied on the basis of soils tests that determine the necessity of minerals that may be missing from the soil.
Myth IV Prune rose canes at 45 degrees that is with angled Cuts
There are many pruning strategies for roses. One of the most consistent myths is that roses should be pruned with angled cuts so water is shed away from the cut end. There is no scientific basis for this and therefore it is not recommended. Pruning back to an outward facing bud is a good idea as it maintains a less tangled rose canopy and helps to promote a more organized architecture in the shrub. Various sources recommend more or less severe winter pruning for roses. Our research shows that the less severely you prune major canes the more flowers that will result. Severe pruning did not increase rose flower quality or quantity. The best rose shrubs (most flowers) are pruned to maintain their shape and reduce tangle while maintaining shrub size. I almost forgot–Don’t seal pruning wounds made to rose canes. Leave cuts to dry.
Myth V Mounding soil around the base of roses should be done every winter
Some rose experts, especially in places with cold climates have advocated mulching with manure or soil over the crown of the rose before freezing winter temperatures set in. Most rose varieties survive the cold winters without this treatment if snow is present. If temperatures fall rapidly without snow, a covering of leaves or straw may be helpful.
Myth VI Grafted roses are better than non-grafted roses
The recent advent of landscape or shrub roses has proven that this myth is incorrect. Non-grafted roses have the advantage of not producing annoying suckers that need to be removed frequently as on some grafted varieties. Many of the landscape roses growing on their own roots are more disease resistant, more vigorous, and produce more flowers consistently than their grafted counterparts. Not all scions are perfectly compatible with their rootstocks so some grafted roses are less vigorous due to graft incompatibility.
Roses are easy to grow once they are established. In recent years, I have had trouble with roses purchased from garden centers that would not grow when planted out. This may be because the plants were held too long in storage before coming to market. It is also imperative when first planting roses to frequently sprinkle the canes to avoid them drying out. Desiccation is a common killer of freshly harvested roses. Once buds “pop” and shoots emerge, culture can continue as with any garden plant providing appropriate moisture as needed. Fertilization should follow recommendations of your soils analysis.
Downer, A.J., A.D. Howell, and J. Karlik. 2015. Effect of pruning on eight landscape rose cultivars grown outdoors. Acta Horticulturae 1064:253-255.