Professional Credentials and Gardening Expertise: Entomologists

This is an installment of our series on professional credentials and gardening expertise. To read the introduction to this series, see Professional Credentials and Gardening Expertise.

Entomologists, Professional Credentials, and Designating Body

Entomology is the study of insects, and is a field within zoology, the study of animals. In the US, the primary professional and scientific society of entomologists is the Ecological Society of America (ESA), which formed in 1889 (ESA, 2019a). The ESA developed the Board Certified Entomologist (BCE) professional certification for professional entomologists with a bachelor’s degree or higher in entomology or a closely related discipline (ESA Certification Corporation, 2019a). The ESA later created the Associate Professional Entomologists (ACE) for those who don’t meet the education requirements of the BCE credential, but do have professional experience and training and work in the pest management industry (ESA Certification Corporation, 2019b). Both credentials are administered by the ESA Certification Corporation (ESA Certification Corporation, 2019a).

Relevance for Gardeners

An entomologist in white overalls sprays chemicals on a tree in a yard.
An entomologist sprays a tree to kill bagworms. Photo courtesy of the US Air Force.

Gardeners are likely to encounter entomologists in a few different capacities. First, professional certification of an entomologist is a sign of authority. This can be especially important when evaluating the credibility of information available online and reviewing the qualifications of authors. Gardeners should seek information from BCEs or ACEs, in addition to traditional sources of information on insect control like extension publications or peer-reviewed literature. Gardeners are also likely to encounter an ACE in the event that a professional is needed for helping with pest control – whether that be in the garden or in the home. If gardeners are seeking an insect control professional, an ACE professional credential is a good indicator of professional experience and training.

 

Type of Credential: professional certificate

The BCE and ACE credentials are professional certificates, which means that it is a voluntary program (Knapp and Knapp, 2002). Being a voluntary program, it is legal for entomologists to practice without the certificate. However, it will be up to gardeners to evaluate the experience, training, and education of the entomologist.

 

Education and Professional Experience Requirements

A bachelor’s degree or higher in entomology or closely related discipline (ecology, zoology, biology, etc.) is required for the BCE credential, while the ACE credential does require a college degree (ESA Certification Corporation, 2019c). BCEs are required to have three years of professional experience if their highest degree is a BS, two years of experience with an MS, and one year of experience with a PhD. ACEs must have 5 years of verified professional experience in pest management. In addition, ACEs must also have an active license or certificate that allows them to apply pesticides without supervision.

Qualifying exams

BCE certified entomologist must past the BCE Qualifying exam with a score of 70% or higher (ESA Certification Corporation, 2019d), while ACEs must pass the ACE exam with a 75% or higher (ESA Certification Corporation, 2019e).

Code of Ethics

BCEs and ACEs are bound by codes of ethics for the respective programs (ESA Certification Corporation, 2019f; g).

Continuing Education

BCEs are required to complete 120 hours of continuing education units via continuing education or professional participation over a three-year reporting period (ESA, 2019b). At least 72 hours of those CEUs must be from continuing education for each reporting period. ACEs are required to complete 18 CEUs over a three-year reporting cycle (ESA Certification Corporation, 2019f).

References

ESA. 2019a. About ESA. Entomological Society of America. https://www.entsoc.org/about/esa (accessed 27 August 2019).

ESA. 2019b. CEU Requirements. ESA Certification Corporation. https://www.entocert.org/ceu-requirements (accessed 27 August 2019).

ESA Certification Corporation. 2019a. About. ESA Certification Corporationf. https://www.entocert.org/about (accessed 27 August 2019).

ESA Certification Corporation. 2019b. ACE Certification. ESA Certification Corporation. https://www.entocert.org/ace-certification (accessed 27 August 2019).

ESA Certification Corporation. 2019c. BCE Requirements. ESA Certification Corporation. https://www.entocert.org/bce-requirements (accessed 27 August 2019).

ESA Certification Corporation. 2019d. BCE Examinations. ESA Certification Corporation. https://www.entocert.org/bce-examinations (accessed 27 August 2019).

ESA Certification Corporation. 2019e. Studying for the ACE Exams. ESA Certification Corporation. https://www.entocert.org/studying-ace-exams (accessed 27 August 2019).

ESA Certification Corporation. 2019f. Maintain my ACE Certification. ESA Certification Corporation. https://www.entocert.org/maintain-my-ace-certification (accessed 27 August 2019).

Knapp, L., and J. Knapp. 2002. The Business of Certification: Creating and Sustaining a Successful Program. 2nd Revised edition edition. Association Management Press,U.S., Washington, D.C.

 

Professional Credentials and Gardening Expertise

This is the first post in a series in which we will explore the world of professional credentials and designations, highlight disciplines related to gardening with certification or licensing programs, and outline potential services professionals from each of those disciplines can provide to gardeners.

Professional designations are designed to help clients identify experts within specific disciplines. In upcoming posts I will highlight professional designations relevant to various aspects of gardening. Professional certifications, licensures, and credentials related to gardening include:

  • Board Certified Entomologist (BSE)
  • ISA Certified Arborist
  • Certified Crop Advisor (CCA) and Certified Professional Agronomist (CPAg)
  • Certified Horticulturalist (CH)
  • Certified Professional Forester (CPF)
  • Certified Professional Soil Scientist (CPSS)
  • Professional Landscape Architect (PLA)
  • Registered Consulting Arborist (RCA)

Before I highlight each of those professions and credentials in future posts, I want to first provide context and explain the purpose of professional certification and licensing.

A registered nurse checks a newborn’s reflexes. Photo by Jacob Sippel courtesy of the U.S. Navy.

Most of us encounter professional designations on a daily basis without noticing. For example, you’re likely familiar with credentials such as Certified Public Accountant (CPA), Registered Nurse (RN), or Doctor of Medicine (MD). Such credentials are often identified with postnominal letters in the form of an acronym listed after someone’s name in print. In some cases these postnominal letters indicate both an academic degree and a professional certification or licensure, such is the case with medical doctors (MD). In some disciplines the degree and designation can be separate. I’ll use myself as an example (not as a humble brag, but as a convenient example). My business card says “Colby Moorberg, PhD, CPSS”. The PhD refers to the highest academic degree earned (Doctor of Philosophy, PhD), while the CPSS refers to the Certified Professional Soil Scientist professional certification. There are countless professional designations in current use, each of which comes with postnominal acronyms. That alphabet soup can become confusing. Yet to further complicate the matter, details vary greatly from one professional designation to the next. Such differences include the type of professional designation, education requirements, qualifying exams, codes of ethics, continuing education requirements, professional experience, and designating bodies.

Types of Professional Designations

Professional designations can take the form of professional licenses or certifications. According to Knapp and Knapp (2002), licenses are granted by government agencies and are required for people to practice or engage in their profession. The process ensures that licensed individuals have met the minimum education and experience required to be competent in their field without risk to themselves or the public. For example, engineers and physicians are required by law to have a license issued by a state licensing board before they can practice in their respective profession. Such professional licenses are somewhat analogous to the requirement that people operating a motor vehicle have a driver’s license – it’s illegal to drive without one.

An arborist tends to trees at the US Capital. Photo courtesy of the Architect of the Capital.

Knapp and Knapp go on to contrast professional certifications from licensing by stating that certification is a voluntary process administered by an organization (not a government agency) to recognize individuals that have met predetermined qualifications or standards. Such certifications help establish the credibility of a professional within a specific discipline when a license is not required. Consider a certified public accountant (CPA). Many people might think twice about trusting an accountant with their finances or tax preparation if that accountant was not certified, even though a license is not required for someone acting as an accountant. Professional certifications are typically administered by professional societies, and are usually used in professions where the immediate health and safety of the general public is not impacted by a professional in the respective discipline.

Education Requirements

Education requirements are put in place in most certification or licensing programs to ensure that the professional has the knowledge base necessary to be successful in their field. Certification and licensing programs often require an associate’s or bachelor’s degree in a related major, but not always. For example, a Certified Professional Forester is required to have at least a bachelor’s degree in forestry or a related major (Society of American Foresters, 2019), while a ISA Certified Arborist could become certified without a college degree if such an individual meets additional professional experience requirements (International Society of Aboriculture, 2019). Licensing boards or certifying bodies typically have panels of professionals within a discipline that review college transcripts of those applying to become licensed or certified in order to ensure each person with a credential meet the program’s minimum education requirement.

Qualifying Exams

All licensing boards and most certification programs have an exam that someone must pass in order to become licensed or certified. Similar to degree requirements, such exams help ensure the professional has the minimum level or expertise necessary to be proficient in their field. In some cases, professionals must pass two exams, one when they start their professional career fresh out of college, and a second after they’ve worked professionally for 3-5 years.

A multiple choice answer card. Photo by Alberto G.

Code of Ethics

Many licensing and certification programs require licensees or certificants to abide by a professional code of ethics. This is a useful feature for clients (gardeners wishing to hire a professional) because it provides a mechanism to report a professional if they are acting unprofessional or unethically. Such codes of ethics are also useful to licensed or certified professionals because it gives them an “out”, should they be asked to do something unethical by a client or an employer.

Continuing Education

Most licensing and certification programs require a minimum number of documented hours (continuing education units, or CEUs) dedicated to staying up-to-date. These hours are documented and must be met within a 1-, 2-, or 3-year cycle. Such continuing education requirements benefit gardeners hoping to hire a professional, because it ensures that professional is staying current in their field and is learning the newest technologies and techniques. Programs that require professionals to abide by codes of ethics often require professional ethics training for each cycle as well.

Books. Photo by Abhi Sharma.

Professional Experience

Certification and licensing programs often have a minimum number or years of professional experience required in order to become certified or licensed. Usually during the period in which someone is gaining experience, they are working under the wing of someone fully licensed or certified. Such requirements help ensure that fully certified or licensed professionals have documented professional experience, and have had the opportunity to apply academic knowledge to real-world applications.

Soil scientists inspect soils in a Christmas tree farm in North Carolina. Photo by David Lindbo via SoilScience.info.

Designating Bodies

Professional certificates or licenses often vary by the group, organization, or licensing board that bestows the professional credential on an individual. In some cases there are competing organizations that offer competing certificates.

Summary

The primary way in which gardeners benefit from hiring certified or licensed experts in their fields is that professional credentials ensure a minimum knowledge and competency by the professional. In addition, these professionals are often bound by their respective professional codes of ethics. As the old adage goes, you get what you pay for. In the case of certified or licensed professionals, this often means it will cost you more for the services of a certified professional. As we explore the different professions and professional credential programs relevant to gardening in future posts, I will discuss gardening-related services that can be provided by each type of certified or licensed professional, and scenarios where spending the additional money to hire a certified professional might be worth the added cost. I hope this information enlightened you to professional designations, certifications, and licensing. Hopefully it will help start a conversation between you and gardening experts to determine how they might be of service to you.

Have you encountered certified or licensed professionals in the gardening world? Discuss your experience in the comments, or suggest certification or licensing programs I may have missed in my list above.

Disclosure: I am a Certified Professional Soil Scientist (CPSS), and I am a member of the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) Soils Certifying Board which oversees the CPSS program.

References

Knapp, L., and J. Knapp. 2002. The Business of Certification: Creating and Sustaining a Successful Program. 2nd Revised edition edition. Association Management Press,U.S., Washington, D.C.
International Society of Arboriculture. 2019. Types of Credentials. International Society of Arboriculture. https://www.isa-arbor.com/Credentials/Which-Credential-is-Right-for-You (accessed 29 July 2019).
Society of American Foresters. 2019. Requirements. Society of American Foresters. https://www.eforester.org/Main/Certification_Education/Certified_Forester/Requirements/Main/Certification/Requirements.aspx?hkey=7eae8378-e92b-438e-aba9-93e713cb38cc (accessed 29 July 2019).

Urban Gardening Considerations

Along with the trends of buying local food, buying organic, etc., there seems to be an increasing interest in the ultimate local food source – a garden. This includes in urban areas. Urban gardening is a great way to save money on food, a great source for fresh vegetables – especially in “food deserts”, and an easy way to introduce kids to where the food on their plate comes from. However, there are a couple potential obstacles you should consider first before starting your urban garden.

"Graze the Roof" by Sergio Ruiz
“Graze the Roof” by Sergio Ruiz

First, in urban environments the possibility that soil could have been contaminated with heavy metals, petrochemicals, etc. is pretty high, especially in older neighborhoods. Lead, which was once a common additive to gasoline and paint, is a common contaminant in urban soils.  and can be absorbed by the roots of the vegetables you grow. Because of this, that lead can eventually end up in the food on your plate. Most lead poisoning comes from ingesting lead (like eating lead paint chips…), so it’s important to know that the soil you’re using for your garden is safe. You should take some soil samples and send them to a lab in your state that can test for heavy metals like lead. Usually the Land Grant university in your state (if you’re in the US) will have a soil testing lab where these tests can be performed for a nominal cost. Other forms of contamination are possible as well, such as chemicals from cars, asphalt , laundry-mats, etc. These chemicals are more difficult to test for, so your best bet is to find out the history of your garden plot. These records should be available from your local city government, perhaps even online. Read more about contamination in this post.

Second, urban soils are often compacted from foot, car, or perhaps machinery traffic. Compacted soils make it difficult for plants to grow, mainly because the plant roots are not strong enough to penetrate the compacted soil, and thus cannot gather enough water or nutrients for the plant to survive, let alone grow and produce vegetables. Compacted soils are especially common in newer housing developments where entire blocks of houses were built around the same time. The construction companies often remove all of the topsoil prior to building the houses. The soils are then driven over by construction machinery and compacted. Then sod is laid directly on top of the subsoil. This makes for soils with very poor growing conditions for both lawns and gardens.

A good alternative for areas with either contaminated or compacted soils is to use a raised garden bed with soil that was brought in from a reliable source. You can buy bags of potting soil from a local home and garden supply store, but a more economic alternative is to have a trailer full of topsoil trucked to your raised bed. When you build your raised garden, be sure to use untreated wood. Some of the chemicals used to for pressure treated lumber are designed to kill fungi that break down wood. These chemicals, some of which contain arsenic, can leach out of the wood and into the soil used for your veggies! However, untreated wood, though it might not last as long, will still last for decades and is probably cheaper anyway. There are lots of great designs and how-to sites that show you how to build a raised garden bed. Here’s an extension bulletin from Washington State University on raised bed gardening. The raised beds shown below are from when I first installed them in my community garden plot in Manhattan, Kansas. One is now a strawberry patch (the border helps contain the strawberries to a defined area), and the other is used for mostly cold season crops.

This image shows two raised garden beds with freshly added soil and surrounded by straw in a garden plot.
Raised garden beds in Colby Moorberg’s community garden plot.

Space is also another consideration. If you don’t have the space for a garden or a raised garden, then perhaps you need to think outside the box (raised garden pun intended) and consider container gardening. Container gardening is exactly what its called – growing ornamental or vegetable plants in containers. Containers can be traditional plant pots, buckets, plastic totes, or any other container with an open top.

The advantages of container gardening include:

  • Containers can be arranged to optimally use the space available, or rearranged if you like to mix things up sometimes
  • Potting soil can be used, and can be trusted to be lead/chemical-free
  • Work can be performed on a bench, thus avoiding working on your knees
  • Containers can be arranged to provide decoration for your outdoor space
  • Many objects found around the house can be cheaply converted into decent containers
Vertical Pallet Garden. Photo by Heather Foust

Vertical gardening is a version of container gardening that uses your available space  efficiently. Much like using shelves to save space inside your home, vertical gardens use shelves, stairs, racks, etc. to make use of vertical space. The options for vertical gardens are only limited by your imagination. Here are a few extension bulletins on vertical gardening from Tennessee State University and the University of Nebraska.

The main disadvantage of container gardening is that you’ll likely have to water more frequently, but there are strategies to overcome that problem – see my prior blog post about saving water with container gardening. Another good resource is the University of Illinois Container Successful Container Gardening website.

In summary, the biggest obstacles to urban gardening are soil contamination, soil compaction, and space limitations. I’ve given you a few good alternatives to overcome those issues. Also, be sure to fertilize appropriately, lime as needed, and make sure the plants that you pick are appropriate for the sunlight that’s available. Your local garden supply store or extension agent can help you with suggestions on those issues.

If you know of an urban gardening obstacle that I didn’t address, please leave a comment and I’ll see if I can help out.

Happy digging!

Colby

This was originally posted on Colby’s soil science blog, ColbyDigsSoil.com. Some edits, updates, and adaptions were made for this post.